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Using ethanol with ivermectin can increase the blood levels or add to the side effects of ivermectin. However, given the efficacy of the drug and apparent safety in proper doses, ivermectin has been studied on guinea pigs to determined safe doses and methods of administration by the research community. Ivermectin administered topically is absorbed into the body of the animal many of the same internal parasites treated by injection are also treated by the topical application of ivermectin. Data presented on subcutaneous administration of ivermectin showed no adverse effects on breeding cattle. Sub-lethal concentrations of ivermectin also significantly decreased egg production by surviving females, increasing further the detrimental effect of the drug on vector densities.
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Ivermectin, thus, seems to negatively affect a series of mosquito traits (longevity, fecundity, competence to pathogens), which are keys in determining the intensity of disease transmission. Mosquitocidal effect of ivermectin was not complete the third and fourth week after treatment and a proportion of mosquitoes was able to survive. Mosquitoes weren’t allowed to lay their eggs nor the hatching rate and larvae survival followed, which represent a limitation of this study, probably leading to an under-estimation of the ivermectin treatments effects on mosquito’s fitness. The mosquitocidal effect vanishes at different rates between calves, suggesting a fair variability in the kinetic and dynamic processes of ivermectin distribution, metabolism or clearance, which may impact on the compound availability in peripheral blood vessels. More experiments are needed using different sub-lethal doses, and have to be more adequately designed to study the impact of ivermectin when imbibed with a blood meal at different times after or before the infectious blood meal. However, despite crucial importance, only a few studies have addressed the question of potential cross-resistance to ivermectin in insecticide-resistant vector mosquitoes. Moreover, effects of sub-lethal doses are observed on mosquito fecundity, which further increases the impact of ivermectin administrated to cattle on total vector densities. Ivermectin to reduce malaria transmission: a research agenda for a promising new tool for elimination.
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Efficacy and safety of the mosquitocidal drug ivermectin to prevent malaria transmission after treatment: a double-blind, randomized, clinical trial. Comparative plasma disposition kinetics of ivermectin, moxidectin and doramectin in cattle. Mortality and infertility in adult mosquitoes after the ingestion of blood containing ivermectin. Low doses of ivermectin cause sensory and locomotor disorders in dung beetles. Ivermectin sensitivity is an ancient trait affecting all ecdysozoa but shows phylogenetic clustering among sepsid flies.
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The potential impact of adding ivermectin to a mass treatment intervention to reduce malaria transmission: a modelling study. Screening for an ivermectin slow-release formulation suitable for malaria vector control. Unlike previous treatments, which had serious – sometimes fatal – side effects, ivermectin is safe and can be used on a wide scale. Because of the possibility for adverse reactions in nursing infants from ivermectin, a choice should be made whether to stop nursing or to stop use of this medication. Although ivermectin is generally well tolerated by patients, it can cause side effects such as fever, dizziness, headache, and rash. Some people might consider this to be a con of using ivermectin since they have to visit their doctors in order to gain access to this treatment. The drug of choice is ivermectin (which has been successfully used for the treatment of onchocerciasis), in combination with albendazole, an anti-helminthic.
However, since the ivermectin effect is not immediate, care must be taken to prevent reinfestation from exposure to untreated animals or contaminated facilities. Free ivermectin may adversely affect fish and certain water born organisms on which they feed. Therefore, ivermectin does not appear to be selectively fetotoxic to the developing fetus. Free ivermectin may adversely affect fish and certain aquatic organisms. Like most other prescription drugs, ivermectin can have drug interactions, contraindications, and side effects.